Physico-chemical Characteristics of Underground water quality of Udaipurwati tehsil of Jhunjhunu District, Rajasthan, India.

 

Y.K. Gupta1*, Alka Kumari2, Vinita Gupta3, Sanchita Singh3

1Head Department of Chemistry, B K Birla Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pilani, Rajasthan, India

2Research Scholar, Department of Chemistry, Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Jhunjhunu, Churu Road, Vidyanagari, Chudela, Rajasthan 333001 , India

3Department of Chemistry, Agra College, Agra, U.P, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ykgbkbiet@rediffmail.com,ykgbkbiet@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Ground water is one of the most useful water sources for sustaining life and environment, but over the last few decades the water quality has been deteriorated to it’s over exploitation. Contamination of such water source is a big problem creating health hazard. The study has been carried out assess the ground water quality and its appropriateness for drinking in most rural habitations of Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan. And assess the ground water quality parameters such as; pH, TDS, Electrical Conductivity, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium Hardness, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Sodium, Potassium, Fluoride, Sulphate and Nitrate have been analysed.

 

KEYWORDS: Ground water quality, Physico-chemical characteristics, pH, TDS, Total Hardness, Electrical Conductivity, Total Alkalinity

 


INTRODUCTION:

Increasing population, growth and rising living standards necessitate higher quality water resources for various uses as agriculture, industry and drinking. In this way ground water resources have been considered as valuable reserves and infrastructure developing areas. Water quality is necessary for all the people. The quality of water can be affected by different pollutants such as; physical, chemical and biological. The chemical hazards are Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate etc. as the public health concern, the ground water should be free from physical and chemical hazards. The contamination of ground water is major environmental risk. Suitability of drinking water for drinking purposes depends upon its quality has been identified as one of the major threats to ground water resources not only in India but throughout the world. The drinking quality of water depends on various suspended, dissolved and biological constituents.

 

Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 2003) and World Health Organization (WHO 2006) has prescribed maximum permissible limits for various dissolved ions in water used for human intake. Researchers all around the world have studied the quality of water based on these standards.

 

Pure water means in a different way for different individuals. Resident is mostly concerned with domestic water problems such as taste, colour, odour and safety to health of family members. Chemists and engineers want to minimize scale deposition and pipe erosion. Farmers are concerned in irrigational (Physical, Chemical and Osmotically) pure water. A correct balance in the substantial, physical, engineered and microbiological qualities of water makes it fit for drinking. Water meeting these conditions is named "Consumable" importance that it may possibly be used in any alluring total without stress for disquieting ramification for propriety although approximately 67% surface of the earth’s is covered by water; water is scarce, as most is salt water. Less than 2.5% of all of the water is clean water; mainly it is found in polar ice caps and only a small amount of that is offered to provide the huge number of human uses.

The underground water is the principle imperative asset around the globe. The underground water is by and large kept in backing of the subsurface water which is found under the geologic arrangement and water table in soils that are totally water logged. This backing to consumable water supply; animal’s needs mechanical, watering system thus numerous business exercises. The underground water by and large less dirtied and tainted in contrast with surface water bodies. The standard debasements in water, which renew underground water frameworks, get dispose of while invading through soil. In India underground water by and large utilized for mechanical and watering system purposes, the human exercises and assortment of water are premise of contamination of this profitable asset metropolitan waste and modern effluents in water bodies is one most imperative worry in a considerable measure of urban communities and mechanical groups in India. The underground water is exceptionally hard to remediate; aside from in unmistakable ranges and consequently the significance must be protection. Lakes and Lakes in Rajasthan have give business to a huge number of individuals.

 

Gupta et al (2017) have been accounted for high grouping of nitrate in ground water which was expanded with all out hardness calcium and magnesium and diminished as the profundity of water table expanded in ground waters of Jhunjhunu locale.

 

Ozha and Jain (1993) watched the 80% instances of water borne maladies are because of debased waters with nitrate and fluoride in Churu, Nagaur, Barmer, Jalore and Bikaner locale. These locales are lies in dull zone because of the lacking of rain.There are huge lacking of water for horticultural, drinking and other residential employments.

 

Gupta et al (2015) contemplated the Quality of water at Jhunjhunu locale a modern territory of down valley and saw that grouping of calcium, magnesium and phosphate were found over as far as possible in normal waters. The waterway and channel water affirmed the expanded contamination because of mechanical advancement. Since the investigation zone is mechanical locale subsequently a great deal of modern waste item is discharged in water sources. As we realize that the mechanical waste has numerous noxious metal particles which increment the degree of water parameters. The blending of business squanders from concoction enterprises, sewage and unmistakable waste and horticultural releases into the water sources increment the contamination level in water. This mechanical contamination in water is caused for diminishing the nature of physiochemical parameters present in water.

 

Singh et al (2000) dealt with surface off ground water nature of Kawar lake territory, Bihar (India). The water tests were broke down for the appraisal of Physico-synthetic quality. Their investigation of drinking water depended on WHO just as Indian guidelines. After the investigation of water test of Kawar Lake of Bihar they reasoned that some water lists are available in higher range when contrasted with world wellbeing association rule. These water files are electrical conductivity, calcium and magnesium hardness. The deviation in electric quality demonstrates the nearness of unrequited strong particles in water. The abnormal states of EC emerge by the versatility of strong particles.

 

Pande and Soni et al (2000) studied the Physico chemical parameters of Naukuchia Taal lake water to assess the quality. It was observed that the lake water was highly polluted and contaminated with high amount of free CO2, total alkalinity and pH except dissolved oxygen gas.The high amount of carbon dioxide arises by decomposition and respiration. Carbon dioxide gas is released by oceans. The cement industries; deforestation and the complete combustion of fossil fuels also produce CO2 gas. The excess quantity of carbon dioxide gas in water forms carbonic acid which decrease the level of hydrogen ion potential in water. This decrement in pH of water is caused for high alkaline nature of water. Pande and his friend have concluded that the water of Naukuchia Taal lakes is not good for drinking and domestic purpose due to the excessive level of CO2, TA and pH.

 

Srivastava and Chaudhary et al (2001) contemplated drinking water characteristics at Agra by looking at different physical, synthetic and bacteriological water properties parameters likes pH, EC TDS, DO, alkalinity, all out hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate nitrate and coli form MPN at the customers end in 22 chose local locations. The examination showed that some alteration and medicinal advance in the current water supply are earnestly required in light of the fact that the water quality is inadmissible in many territories of the city. Since Agra is a recorded spot of India due to Taj Mahal. Thus various guests come there to visit the Taj Mahal. Because of the thick populace of Agra that degree of water just as air contamination is extremely high. So there are enormous conceivable outcomes of acidic downpour which caused ruin shed the sparkling of Taj Mahal which demonstrate towards the huge degree of contamination.

 

STUDY AREA:

Udaipurwati is the southern block of Jhunjhunu district sharing the border with Sikar district. Northern Aravali passes through this region. Udaipurwati is located at 27044 N lattitude and 75029 E longitude.

 

CLIMATE:

It is situated at semi arid region, which is very hot in summer and very cold in winter. The highest temperature in summer touches 490C, while the lowest temperatures in winter sometimes lower than zero degrees Centigrade.

 

WATER SAMPLING:

Ground water samples were collected from villages of Udaipurwati block in precleaned and rinsed polythene bottles with necessary precautions. The samples were collected from open wells, bore wells and deep bore wells.

 

METHODOLOGY:

All the samples were analyzed under the following Physico-Chemical parameters; pH, Electrical conductivity, Total Alkalinity (TA), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium Hardness, Magnesium Hardness, Chloride, Fluoride, Nitrate and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The analysis of water samples were carried out in accordance to the standard analytical methods. All the distilled water used for preparation of solutions. Detailed of the analysis of the analysis methods are summarized in Table - 1.

 

TABLE - 1

S. No.

Parameters

Unit

Method employed

1

Ph

-

Digital pH meter

2

Electrical Conductivity

Micro mhos/cm

Digital Conductivity Meter

3

Total Alkalinity

mg/l

Titrimetric method (with HCl)

4

Total Hardness

mg/l

Titrimetric method (with EDTA)

5

Ca2+

mg/l

Titrimetric method

6

Mg2+

mg/l

Titrimetric method

7

Cl-

mg/l

Titrimetric method (with AgNO3)

8

Nitrate

mg/l

Spectrophotometric method

9

Fluoride

mg/l

Ion Selective Electrode

10

Total Dissolved Solids

mg/l

Digital Conductivity Meter

 

RESULT:

The respective values of all water quality parameters in the ground water samples are illustrated below in Table - 2. All the results are compared with standard permissible limit recommended by BIS, ICMR, WHO depicted in Table – 3.

 

TABLE - 2

S. No.

pH

EC

TA

TH

Ca2+

Mg2+

Cl-

Nitrate

F-

TDS

S – 1

8.40

3400

990

90

30

60

290

10

3.89

2380

S – 2

7.90

2300

210

180

370

400

80

27

0.40

320

S – 3

7.90

2400

200

770

470

500

 80

13

0.20

360

S - 4

7.80

2100

250

970

360

400

660

25

1.80

1560

S – 5

7.90

1500

210

760

480

500

80

11

0.20

360

S – 6

8.00

1700

260

980

460

500

90

10

0.20

400

S – 7

7.9

2700

210

960

480

500

70

10

0.20

300

S – 8

7.80

2200

230

980

40

60

90

16

0.30

400

S – 9

8.10

2200

370

100

60

90

250

75

2.70

960

S – 10

8.00

1500

470

80

30

50

50

23

2.20

1050

S – 11

7.90

1700

220

760

40

60

410

75

1.10

1550

S – 12

7.70

1600

200

150

100

120

70

76

0.30

320

S – 13

7.70

2200

200

220

120

240

70

48

0.30

360

S – 14

7.60

1100

140

980

450

500

760

20

0.20

1650

S – 15

7.80

2000

220

960

130

150

80

84

0.40

360

S – 16

7.50

2000

150

960

130

150

350

84

0.20

1260

S – 17

7.60

1700

180

980

410

460

260

109

0.20

930

S – 18

7.80

5200

190

70

80

100

130

68

0.20

400

S – 19

7.90

5100

210

70

120

160

80

142

0.40

360

S – 20

7.50

4300

140

70

30

40

720

146

0.30

1470

S – 21

7.70

3000

220

80

30

40

150

206

0.50

520

S – 22

7.70

5100

230

70

80

100

150

142

0.30

520

S – 23

7.70

4300

230

70

120

160

70

146

0.40

270

 

TABLE – 3

S. No.

Parameter

BIS:1999

ICMR:1975

WHO:2006

1

pH

6.5-8.5

7.0-8.5

6.5-8.5

2

EC

-

-

-

3

TA

600

600

120

4

TH

600

600

500

5

Cl-

1000

200

200

6

Nitrate

100

50

45

7

Fluoride

1.5

1.5

1.5

8

TDS

2000

1500

500

 

pH:

pH is measure of intensity of acidity and alkalinity of water. All chemical and biological reactions are directly dependent on pH of water system. The sample shows variation of pH in range 7.50 to 8.40.

EC: EC is an indicator of the degree of mineralisation of water. Sample 14 shows minimum and sample 18 shows maximum EC.

 

TH:

Total hardness is due to the natural accumulation of salts from contact with soil and geological formations or it may enter from direct pollution by industrial effluents. Hardness of water mainly depends upon the amount of Calcium or Magnesium salts or both. In the present study TH varied from 70mg/l to 980mg/l. the sampling point showed higher than WHO prescribed.

 

Ca2+:

The maximum parts of samples show deviation from desirable range of Calcium ion parameter. The range was found in between 30mg/l and 480mg/l.

 

Mg2+:

This ion content is varied from 40mg/l to500mg/l in this present study which shoes deviation from desirable range.

 

CHLORIDE:

Chloride salts are widely distributed in underground water in varying concentration. Excess chloride in potable water is not particularly harmful and the criteria set for this anion based primarily on portability and high corrosiveness. This content varied from 50mg/l to 760mg/l.

 

NITRATE:

Nitrate in water is due to domestic activities and agricultural runoff which dissolved in rain water leaches into the wells. The presence of nitrate in drinking water has adverse effect on health above 50mg/l. In this study this content varied in range 10mg/l and 206mg/l.

 

FLUORIDE:

Fluoride is geochemical contaminant and natural soueves account for most of the fluoride in surface and ground water. Intake of excess fluoride causes Skeletal and Dental fluorosis. The required level of fluoride is 0.20mg/l to 3.89mg/l.

 

CONCLUSION:

Water is indispensable not only for the existence of the mankind but also for human development and healthy functioning of ecosystem. There has been increasing global attention focused on resolving water quality problems especially in developing countries, as the lack of access to clean water denies the most essential of all rights, the right to life. In the present study of the ground water quality of Udaipurwati in Jhunjhunu district. Most of parameters like EC, Alkalinity, Cl-, TDS, Ca2+, and nitrate were not found within permissible limits. The higher concentration of some parameters indicates the presence of some other sources like chemical fertilizers used in Agriculture and chemicals in Industries. The higher value of these parameters indicates the need for some short treatment for the removal of excess quantity of these parameters.

 

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Received on 27.12.2019            Accepted on 31.12.2019     

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Int. J. Tech. 2019; 9(2):35-39.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-3915.2019.00008.7